Usage & preview Edit
Amestris (アメストリス, Amesutorisu) is the country that serves as the principal setting of the Fullmetal Alchemist series. Amestris (アメストリス, Amesutorisu) is the country that serves as the principal setting of the Fullmetal Alchemist series.Amestris is one of the main setting in FullMetal Alchemist. The city is a Parliamentary Republic. The Head of State is the Commander-in-Chief of the Military who holds the title of Führer. It seems that Amestris is composed by several former nations. The regions of the country seem to reflect the differences of these nations. The country had five different administrative divisions: South Area, West Area, North Area, East Area and Central Area.
Amestris is a Unitary State with a Parliamentary Republic type of government. It's unknown whether it's a bi-cameral or a unicameral Parliament. What is known is that, since the creation of the State, the Parliament has been used as a mere facade to an authoritarian mandate. The government is almost run by the military itself. It appears that the only elections held in Amestris is for the legislative positions in the Parliament, but its power is irrelevant to the decision making process. In practice, the Government is composed of nominated positions.
Its type of government makes it hard to distinguish between the government institutions and the military, making it constantly questioned and confronted by the general population, which is rarely friendly and even belligerent towards the military regime.
Amentris was officially founded in 1550, tough the country already existed. There is a mention of "The Philosopher of the East" that changed the nation's history forever. This said man brought with him the arts of alchemy. This lead to an uprising of Amestris influence and power in the region. After the foundation of the country, Amestris began expanding its territory by invading neighboring countries and subduing them.
Since then Amentis has been a porweful country, priming conflicts with its neighbour states and maintaining a very a authoritarian government. It's base of political and economical has been strongly connected to war, boosting the military to the hightest ranks and prestige positions within the government, which would explain why it is stated earlier that the military practically rules the city.
In July 1558, Amestris first declared war with the nation west of the country by invading the city of Riviere, resulting in the first bloody battle of Amestris′ known history. Amestris later invaded other neighboring cities such as Cameron in 1661 and Wellesley in 1811. By October, 1835, Amestris invaded the neighboring country of Aerugo, starting the war that has endured until the time of the series. As each war was fought and the neighbouring countries conquered, Amestris took their enemies' land and integrated it and their peoples into their own. The country eventually grew into a large circle, save for one piece at the northern border, with the capital in the centre.
In the year 1901, in the province of Ishval an Ishvalan girl was shot by an Amestrian soldier, instigating revolt from the locals and thus beginning the Ishval Civil War. The Civil War lasted until 1908, when Führer Bradley issued the Order 3066, sending the military′s most feared special division, the State Alchemists, to Ishval's front, commanding the extermination of the Ishvalan people. The area was devastated and its population massacred by 1909. The conflicts escalated thereon, with bloody struggles in the East, South, West and North Areas in the following years. The main battles were at Liore against the followers of Letoism (1914) and at Briggs against Drachman forces (1914—1915.)
By late winter 1915, Amestris faced its greatest crisis since its founding. With a civil war in the heart of the country, resulting in Führer Bradley′s death and the rise to power of Führer Grumman, formerly the Commanding Officer of the Eastern Headquarters.
Führer Grumman′s ascendance to power changed the country′s policy drastically, promoting peace treaties with neighboring countries and removing military forces from the borders, concentrating efforts on building cooperation with other nations, especially Xing, a country formerly isolated and distant from Amestris, that has improved its relations thanks to the efforts of General Roy Mustang and the new Emperor of Xing, Ling Yao
Amestris comprises many different nations and many different ethnic groups. The most prominent ones are "Caucasian" (dark hair and eyes and light skin tone), "Middle Easterns" (brown eyes and hair, red eyes in the case of Ishvalan, and tanned skin), especially in the East Area, including the region of Ishval (and, in 2003 anime, Reole), and "Nordic" (blond hair and blue/green eyes). The dominant ethnic group in Amestris are Caucasian although they too vary a lot. The "Nordic" group seems to be exclusive of Amestris, not appearing in any surrounding country other than the ancient Xerxes in the east.
Although these ethnic groups are similar and even inspired by the ones in our world, it should be noted that they have no mention to these specific ethnic groups in the story and it's even unknown how the Fullmetal Alchemist world understands the concept of ethnicity and their groups and names.
State Military Edit
The only armed force of Amentris is the military. The military lacks of aerial vehicles and the landlocked nature of the country preclude the need for marine or navy.
Ever since King Bradly was elected the main focus of the country had been the it's military. The military has full control on how civilians live their life. The military is well known for it's war in Ishval. The military also had skirmishes with it's neighbours, Creta and Aerugo.
The military admistrations has it's general headquarters in Central City and four others throughout the country. The army from the easter headquarters as well as the army from the fortress of Briggs are considered the best divisons of the army. Briggs specialises in defence while the Eastern Army concentrates on offence.
It appears however that infantry is the main branch of the army. They are supported by artillery, tanks, and the most prominent and effective of them all, the State Alchemists.
The division of State Alchemists is parallel to the normal ranks of the army. They are automatically assigned the rank of major upon recruitment. They have their own symbols, titles, and undergo different treatment and supervision from other military personnel.
Amestris had its growth and strengthening orchestrated for a precise purpose, the creation of a giant Nationwide Transmutation Circle, much like the one Father used in Xerxes. Over three hundred years before the events of the manga, a man known as the 'Eastern Philosopher' (actually Father) taught the basics of alchemy to the then tiny country, which then began using the techniques to conquer its neighbors. In recent years, there have been numerous incidents of mass death incited by the Amestrian State Military, forming a pattern identical to a circle found under the Fifth Laboratory used to create Philosopher's Stones. The circle is nearing completion, the final remaining point of bloodshed is the fortress Briggs, which has been assaulted by a very much outmatched Drachman force. Meanwhile, the Homunculus Sloth has completed a giant tunnel he has been secretly digging around the entirety of Amestris, in the form of the transmutation circle used to create the stones.